Diego Costa is facing a three-match ban for grappling with Laurent Koscielny during Chelsea’s win over Arsenal on Saturday.
The striker appeared to claw at the Frenchman’s face as they battled for the ball at Stamford Bridge.
The incident went unpunished but the Football Association have now charged the Spain international retrospectively with violent conduct.
FA chiefs studied controversial referee Mike Dean’s match report on the incident towards the end of the first half at Stamford Bridge before unanimously deciding to punish the Chelsea forward.
Costa was booked, but it was not been made clear whether it was for the incident with Koscielny or his exchange with Gabriel that led to the Arsenal defender’s red card.
The Brazilian was followed down the runnel by midfield team-mate Santi Cazorla in the second half as he was given his marching orders following two yellow cards.
Gabriel has been charged with improper conduct for his behaviour following his dismissal, whilst team-mate Cazorla has been warned for his behaviour following his sending off. Both clubs have been charged with failing to control their players
Costa has until 6pm on Tuesday to respond while Gabriel and both clubs have until the same time on Thursday.
Chelsea went on to win the grudge match at Stamford Bridge 2-0 after goals from Kurt Zouma and Eden Hazard.