Scientists say a new vaccine against HIV, to be tested in a trial to be launched in South Africa this week, could be “the final nail in the coffin” for the disease if it is successful.

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Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. government’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), said Sunday, in a statement released ahead of the trial, said the new vaccine is promising.

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The study, called HVTN 702, is to begin Wednesday and aims to enroll 5,400 sexually active men and women aged between 18 and 35 at 15 sites across South Africa.

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It will be the largest and most advanced HIV vaccine clinical trial to take place in South Africa, where more than 1,000 people a day are infected with HIV.