Takaaki Kajita and Arthur MacDonald have won the 2015 Nobel Physics prize for their discovery of neutrino oscillations, which show that neutrinos — the second-most abundant particles in the universe, next to photons — have mass.

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The Nobel Committee said in a statement that the research done by Kajita, of the University of Tokyo, and MacDonald, of Queen’s University, Canada, has changed the world’s understanding of the innermost workings of matter.

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On Monday, the Nobel Committee announced the prize winners for medicine: scientists from Ireland, Japan and China.

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William Campbell from Ireland and Satoshi Omura from Japan shared the prize for their discovery of a new therapy for infections caused by roundworm parasites.

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